EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

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Updated: 8 hours 17 min ago

Scientists seek genetic causes of condition that can result in absent uterus and vagina

Mon, 2019-01-21 21:00
(Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University) A percentage of females are born with a missing or underdeveloped vagina and uterus, and scientists are working to analyze the genes of hundreds of them to get a better idea about causes, improve genetic counseling and ideally treatment.
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Investigators close in on best treatment guidelines for critical limb ischemia

Mon, 2019-01-21 21:00
(Boston Medical Center) A new report in the Journal of Vascular Surgery chronicles a multi-site randomized controlled trial that seeks to compare treatment efficacy, functional outcomes, cost effectiveness, and quality of life for 2,100 patients suffering from the condition.
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Blood test shows promise for early detection of severe lung-transplant rejection

Mon, 2019-01-21 21:00
(NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute) Researchers have developed a simple blood test that can detect when a newly transplanted lung is being rejected by a patient, even when no outward signs of the rejection are evident. The test could make it possible for doctors to intervene faster to prevent or slow down so-called chronic rejection -- which is severe, irreversible, and often deadly -- in those first critical months after lung transplantation.
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Widely available food in US workplaces: Perk or hazard?

Mon, 2019-01-21 21:00
(Elsevier) Nearly a quarter of employed adults obtain foods and beverages at work at least once a week, according to a new study from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Foods obtained at work are often high in calories, refined grains, added sugars, and sodium.
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Unexpected link found between feeding and memory brain areas

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Baylor College of Medicine) Researchers reveal an unexpected connection between the lateral hypothalamus and the hippocampus, the respective feeding and the memory centers of the brain.
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Youthful cognitive ability strongly predicts mental capacity later in life

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(University of California - San Diego) Early adult general cognitive ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive function and reserve later in life than other factors, such as higher education, occupational complexity or engaging in late-life intellectual activities.
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Delaying newborn baths increases rates of breastfeeding

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Cleveland Clinic) While it has been standard practice for decades to whisk newborns off to a bath within the first few hours of their birth, a new Cleveland Clinic study found that waiting to bathe a healthy newborn 12 or more hours after birth increased the rate of breastfeeding exclusivity during the newborn hospital stay. The paper was published Jan. 21 in the Journal for Obstetrics, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing.
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Mice pass on brain benefits of enriched upbringing to offspring

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Society for Neuroscience) Mice growing up in a basic cage maintain lifelong visual cortex plasticity if their parents were raised in an environment that promoted social interaction and physical and mental stimulation, according to a multigenerational study published in eNeuro. The research suggests life experience may be transmitted from one generation to the next through a combination of changes in gene expression and parental caretaking behavior.
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Implantable device curbs seizures and improves cognition in epileptic rats

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Society for Neuroscience) A protein-secreting device implanted into the hippocampus of epileptic rats reduces seizures by 93 percent in three months, finds preclinical research published in JNeurosci. These results support ongoing development of this technology and its potential translation into a new treatment for epilepsy.
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How concussions may lead to epilepsy

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Society for Neuroscience) Researchers have identified a cellular response to repeated concussions that may contribute to seizures in mice like those observed following traumatic brain injury in humans. The study, published in JNeurosci, establishes a new animal model that could help improve our understanding of post-traumatic epilepsy.
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Mouse studies show 'inhibition' theory of autism wrong

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(University of California - Berkeley) Today's main hypothesis about the cause of autism symptoms is that neurons receive too little inhibition or too much excitation, causing hyperexcitability. This excessive spiking interferes with normal brain function. UC Berkeley neuroscientists demonstrated that while inhibition does decrease in the brains of mice models, the changed balance between excitation and inhibition doesn't affect spiking. The altered balance seems to be a compensatory mechanism that stabilizes brain activity in response to the disorder.
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New study raises hopes of eradication of malaria

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Karolinska Institutet) After major global successes in the battle against malaria, the positive trend stalled around 2015 -- apart from in Zanzibar in East Africa, where only a fraction of the disease remains. In a new study published in BMC Medicine, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden explain why this was and show that new strategies are needed to eradicate the disease. One of the problems is a change in mosquito behaviour and selection in the parasites.
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Molecular profiling could catch lung cancer early and lead to new treatments

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(University College London) The world's first genetic sequencing of precancerous lung lesions could pave the way for very early detection and new treatments, reports a new study led by UCL researchers published in Nature Medicine.
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The diversity of rural African populations extends to their microbiomes

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(University of Pennsylvania) In the largest study of its kind, a team led by University of Pennsylvania researchers investigated the gut microbiomes of people from seven ethnically diverse populations from remote areas of Botswana and Tanzania. Their findings illuminate the relative impact of lifestyle, geography, and genetics in shaping the microbiome.
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Leaving 2-hour gap between dinner and bedtime may not affect blood glucose

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(BMJ) Leaving a two-hour gap between the last meal of the day and bedtime doesn't seem to be associated with any discernible difference in blood glucose levels among healthy adults over the long term, suggests Japanese research published in the online journal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health.
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Body size may influence women's lifespan more than it does men's

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(BMJ) Body size-height and weight- may influence women's lifespan far more than it does men's, suggests research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
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How our brains distinguish between self-touch and touch by others

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Linköping University) Our brains seem to reduce sensory perception from an area of our skin when we touch it ourselves, according to a new study from Linköping University, Sweden, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS. The finding increases our understanding of how the brain distinguishes between being touched by another person and self-touch.
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Genetic study reveals possible new routes to treating osteoarthritis

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) In the largest genetic study of osteoarthritis to date, scientists have uncovered 52 new genetic changes linked to the disease, which doubles the number of genetic regions associated with the disabling condition. Scientists analyzed the genomes of over 77,000 people with osteoarthritis. Their findings revealed new genes and biological pathways linked to osteoarthritis, which could help identify starting points for new medicines. Researchers also highlighted opportunities for existing medicines to be evaluated in osteoarthritis.
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Specialist-led bereavement service may help curb legal action after hospital deaths

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(BMJ) Hospital bereavement services that are led by senior doctors and nurses and the person responsible for quality and safety may help to curb patient complaints and legal action in the wake of a difficult death, suggest the results of a pilot study, carried out at one NHS hospital trust and published online in the journal BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.
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Blood test detects Alzheimer's damage before symptoms

Sun, 2019-01-20 21:00
(Washington University School of Medicine) A simple blood test reliably detects signs of brain damage in people on the path to developing Alzheimer's disease -- even before they show signs of confusion and memory loss, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
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